2019 Honda Ridgeline RTL-E AWD
No vehicle or battery manufacturer has developed a way to reliably determine the "age" of any given battery in real-time based on any suite of tests of the sort you suggest. Even 'close inference' of "age" is for practical intents impossible by such means due to the varied new-baseline characteristics among similar batteries.To me, Ford should have had the system reset itself when it detected a new battery.
The only way that can be reliably accomplished is by having a chip in the battery with battery info which is read by the vehicle. That requires a specific chip-equipped battery and vehicle systems specifically designed to read the info held on the chip (and then utilize that info). Such has been developed and tested (Jaguar and a few other high-end makers IIRC) but lacking standardization and broad adoption by both vehicle and battery manufacturers is far from common.
As you say, think about it ... there's no set of measurements that can determine a "new" battery has been installed. For example, an "old" battery may be removed from the vehicle, placed on an external charger system to 'refresh, de-sulfate, and charge', then reinstalled. When reinstalled and 'measured' by all the means you suggest that battery will then 'appear' to be 'different' from the one removed, even though it is in fact the same battery, and in fact suffers the same inherent age-related limitations that it and any other "not-new" battery suffers. The Ford system contemplates and accommodates that exact scenario (it's discussed in the WSM and thus the instruction to never reset the BMS until a true "new" battery is installed).
Granted all this to-do about battery "age" has to do with 'Nth degree' optimization of charging strategy; one may argue that's a high degree of optimization with little real-world payback for most consumers. Nonetheless it's a degree of optimization that more than a few vehicle and battery manufacturers strive to achieve and implement in real-world applications.
Just for your consideration